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Pre-school education



Article title

School curriculum for preschool education, Ten for easy adaptation, What a child should know before entering kindergarten, Ten for parents of preschool children

School curriculum for preschool education
It goes better with a smile

Moto: The paradise of home

Just take note, kids,

what beauty there is in the world!

Just look around, children,

What flowers are blooming around here!

How many animals there are,

How many birds, little birds.

How many good people are here,

who don't envy each other's joy!

Just notice, children,

what beauty there is in the world!

Jan Čarek

  • The PV curriculum is based on the RVP PV.
  • Discussed at the pedagogical council on 30 August 2021.
  • Discussed with the founder on 31 August 2021 at the regular meeting of the Ratiboř Municipal Assembly.
  • We will develop, supplement and update the PV SPP as needed.


The SAP PV is in PDF format below

Ten for easy adaptation


Talk to your child about what kindergarten is like, all the things that are done there, that it is a place for children where there are lots of different and new toys and where he/she will make new friends. You can give specific examples of people you know who already go to kindergarten. But avoid negative descriptions and don't scare children away from daycare! A child cannot like something you present to him as a punishment.


Whenever you leave the house, reassure the child that you are leaving but that you will be back. The child needs to feel that he or she can count on you and that you will keep your word. For example, create a ritual together and use it regularly: kiss, wave, high-five, say goodbye, etc. It is a mistake to sneak out of the house secretly. The child may feel betrayed and the fear of separation deepens.


Let the child know that you understand his fears about starting kindergarten, but reassure him that you believe in him and that he will definitely make it. This will boost his or her confidence. You can talk about your experiences at nursery. But again, avoid negative descriptions.


The child should already be able to dress, eat, drink and go to the toilet on his/her own. The more you help the child, the more you prolong his/her independence. Children are skilful and can become independent very quickly. Even if we think he is too young to do so! The sooner you start, the better you will do. Therefore, he will not experience bad feelings about not being able to do it or not being able to do it. Reassure your child that if he is not good at something, he can ask the teacher, who will certainly help him.


Goodbyes should not be prolonged unnecessarily. The longer the departure, the more difficult the separation will be for the child. Use your rituals. But don't leave hastily or secretly. If the child cries, briefly explain why you must leave, say goodbye and leave. Do not let crying become a way for the child to get his or her way. Children get used to a new environment very quickly and will be involved in the classroom in no time.


Give your child something he/she likes to bring (stuffed animal, toy,...). At the same time, it is important that the child is willing to show or lend the toy to friends so that it does not become a means of conflict and disagreement.


Children can be very sensitive to their parents' expressions of fear. Be clear about how YOU are experiencing the situation. If you are worried about being separated from your child, agree that the one who has less of a problem will take the child to nursery. But if you yourself are not ready and truly convinced that you want to put your child in kindergarten, then you should reconsider putting your child in kindergarten.


When you tell your child that you will come after lunch, you should come after lunch. However, if you are not sure, you better not promise. The child takes it much worse. Even if he has no concept of time, he divides the day according to situations (snack, being outside, lunch...) and very quickly gets the routine of the day.


The child experiences stress not only from being in kindergarten without parents, but also from failing and then not getting a reward. Of course, if the day goes well, praise the child and go to celebrate, perhaps to a candy store or buy some trinket. But material rewards should not become the rule. The child might then demand a toy every day.


In extreme cases, talk to the teacher about the child's adaptation options. Initially, you can see the child in class, but then say goodbye and leave. Create a ritual. You need to remember that some children might be sorry. For this reason, you must consider the whole class collective. Try not to prolong this method of adaptation for more than 14 days. The child still has to get used to being away from you. Of course, you can still contact the teacher for the child's benefit or to deal with different situations. They will be happy to share with you anything they know about your child.


Pre-school education is organised for children aged from 2 to usually 6 years. A child under the age of 3 is not legally entitled to admission to the kindergarten (Section 34(1) of Act No. 561/2004 Coll., the Education Act, as amended). For children under 3 years of age, the condition of being able to fulfil the PV curriculum, separation from parents and the level of self-care - mastering hygiene habits without the need for special personal care of another adult, is set, is eligible to fulfil the requirements of the PV curriculum and the PV curriculum of the Ratiboř Kindergarten.

What a child should know before starting kindergarten
  • know how to use the toilet (diapers are NOT allowed)
  • wash hands
  • use a towel independently
  • use the toilet independently (do not use the potty), boys lift the seat, always flush!!!, we will help with wiping
  • know how to blow their nose, wipe their nose, use paper tissues
  • actively report their needs!
  • DO NOT use a pacifier in the nursery even when falling asleep!
  • Eat and drink independently (do not feed the child, teach the child to sit at the table at mealtimes, teach the child to eat with a spoon or even with cutlery - do not be afraid of messes, which you probably won't miss at the beginning, do not give the child to drink from a pacifier or a baby cup with a "handle")
  • eat not only soup but also the main meal at lunch
  • to be able to take a bite out of ½ slice of bread including the crust - not to cut it into pieces
  • the child should be used to a varied diet (vegetables, fruit, meat, side dishes)
  • should be able to walk for longer periods - do not carry the child in a pram
  • be able to be left alone for a while without loved ones
  • adapt to new conditions - being in a larger group, in a new environment, being away from the family for longer, being in a busy environment
  • be able to express their wishes and needs (ask, thank, greet...)
  • to be able to put toys and work equipment in the designated place
  • be able to behave safely within the limits of his/her reasoning abilities
  • be able to make eye and eye contact when communicating
  • respond to adult instructions and respond to their name!
  • respect agreed rules
  • recognize your clothes, pajamas, shoes, slippers (please sign everything legibly, thank you)
  • know how to walk up and down stairs, hold onto handrails
  • make a "pile" of your clothes (before going to sleep, after coming from the garden...)
  • cooperate with dressing and undressing
  • put on and take off shoes, slippers
  • orient themselves to simple instructions, short narratives
  • reproduce short songs and rhymes, describe a simple picture

- spare clothes for the locker + underwear
- clothes for being outdoors according to the current season
- sign the clothes!!!- with fabric marker, embroidered, etc.
- give your child clothes that he can get dirty
- slippers with white soles (dark soles stain the floor)
- the child must be able to put the slippers on by himself without the help of an adult

Ten for parents of preschoolers

1. The child should be sufficiently physically and physically mature, consciously control his body, be independent in self-care. A child meets this requirement if:

  • moves in a coordinated manner, is reasonably agile and skilled (e.g. throws and catches a ball, balances on one leg, runs, jumps, moves safely in a normal environment)
  • undresses, dresses and puts on shoes (fastens and unfastens zip and small buttons, ties shoelaces, puts on hat, gloves)
  • is independent when eating (uses cutlery correctly, pours a drink, eats cleanly, uses a napkin)
  • handles personal hygiene independently (uses a tissue, can blow his/her nose, washes and dries his/her hands, uses toilet paper, uses a flushing device, cleans up after himself/herself)
  • performs minor cleaning tasks (collects and puts away objects and equipment in a designated place, prepares other equipment, puts toys away)
  • takes care of his/her belongings (keeps them tidy)

2. The child should be relatively emotionally independent and able to control and manage his/her behaviour. The child meets this requirement if:

  • can cope with separation from parents
  • speaks independently, has an opinion, expresses agreement and disagreement
  • is emotionally stable, without significant mood swings
  • self-controlled and controlled (responds appropriately to minor setbacks, can postpone wishes until a later time, can adapt to a specific activity or situation)
  • is aware of responsibility for his/her behaviour
  • follows agreed rules 

3. The child should have adequate language, speech and communication skills. A child meets this requirement if:

  • pronounces all syllables correctly (including syllables, rotacisms, softenings)
  • speaks in sentences, can tell a story, describe a situation, etc.
  • speaks mostly grammatically correct (i.e. uses correct gender, number, tense, forms, words, prepositions, etc.)
  • understands most words and expressions commonly used in his/her environment
  • has an adequate vocabulary, can name most of what he/she is surrounded by
  • speaks naturally and intelligibly to children and adults, conducts conversation, and respects the rules of conversation
  • Attempts to write his/her name in block letters (marks a drawing with a mark or letter)
  • uses natural non-verbal communication (gestures, facial expressions, body language, etc.)
  • works together in a group

4. The child should master hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, right-left orientation. A child meets this requirement if:

  • he/she is skilled in handling everyday objects, toys, tools and instruments (working with building blocks, modelling, cutting, drawing, painting, folding paper, tearing, sticking, turning pages in a book correctly, etc.)
  • handles activities with smaller objects (beads, small building blocks, etc.)
  • holds a pencil correctly, i.e. with two fingers supported by a third, with a relaxed wrist
  • follows the pencil trail, strokes are smooth when drawing (outlines, colours, adds detail and expression of movement in the drawing)
  • can imitate basic geometric shapes (square, circle, triangle, rectangle), various shapes, (or letters)
  • distinguishes between right and left hand, right and left hand (may make mistakes)
  • generally arranges elements from left to right
  • uses the right or left hand when drawing or in other activities where hand preference applies (it is usually obvious whether the child is right or left-handed

5. The child should be able to distinguish between visual and auditory sensations. A child meets this requirement if:

  • distinguishes and compares the essential features and characteristics of objects (colour, size, shape, material, figure and background), finding their common and different features
  • composes a word from several heard syllables and a picture from several shapes
  • distinguishes sounds (of common objects and acoustic situations as well as the sounds of simple musical instruments)
  • recognises the differences between syllables (soft and hard, short and long)
  • aurally breaks down a word into syllables (cheers the syllables in a word)
  • finds differences in two pictures, adds details
  • distinguishes between simple pictorial symbols and signs and simple symbols and signs with abstract form (letters, numbers, basic road signs, pictograms)
  • notice changes in his/her surroundings, in the picture (what is new, what is missing)
  • reacts correctly to light and sound signals

6. The child should master simple logical and reasoning operations and be familiar with elementary mathematical concepts. A child meets this requirement if:

  • has an idea of number (shows the number on fingers or objects, counts on fingers, can count by ones, understands that a numeral represents a number)
  • is familiar with elementary numbers (names a number series and counts the number of elements up to at least five (ten)
  • compares the number of two low-numbered sets, i.e. up to five elements (recognises the difference and determines how much larger or smaller one is)
  • recognises basic geometric shapes (circle, square, triangle, etc.)
  • distinguishes and compares the properties of objects
  • sorts, groups and matches objects according to a given criterion (beads into groups according to colour, shape, size)
  • thinks, makes simple reflections, comments on what he/she is doing ('thinking out loud')
  • understands simple relationships and connections, solves simple problems and situations, word examples, problems, puzzles, riddles, labyrinths
  • understands spatiotemporal concepts (e.g. above, below, below, above, inside and outside, before, later, yesterday, today), concepts of size, weight (e.g. long, short, small, big, heavy, light)

7. The child should have sufficiently developed deliberate attention and the ability to remember deliberately and learn consciously. A child meets this requirement if:

  • focuses attention on activities for a specific period of time (approx. 10-15 min.)
  • "he/she 'allows' himself/herself to be recruited for deliberate learning (he/she can focus on activities that are not of current interest to him/her)
  • deliberately remembers what he/she has experienced, seen, heard, is able to recall and reproduce it after a reasonable time, and can partially evaluate it
  • remembers nursery rhymes, poems, songs
  • accepts a task or duty, concentrates on the task, does not run off to others, can make an effort and complete it
  • follows instructions
  • works independently

8. The child should be reasonably socially independent as well as socially responsive, able to coexist with peers in a group. The child meets this requirement if:

  • applies basic social rules (healthy, can ask, thank, apologise)
  • makes contact with children and adults, communicates with them generally without problems, makes friends with children to whom he/she feels affection
  • is not afraid to be separated for a period of time from those close to him/her
  • is a partner in play (seeks out a partner for play, arranges, divides and changes roles for the sake of play)
  • participates in group work, cooperates in joint activities, adapts to the opinions and decisions of the group
  • negotiates and agrees, expresses and defends his/her opinion
  • in a group (family), follows the rules given and understood, if given instructions, is understood to follow them
  • treats other children in a friendly, sensitive and considerate way (shares toys, tools, treats, divides tasks, notices what the other wants)
  • is able to be considerate of others (can agree, wait, take turns, help younger children) 

9. The child should perceive cultural stimuli and show creativity. The child meets this requirement if:

  • listens attentively or watches with interest literary, film, drama or music performances
  • is interested in an exhibition of pictures, puppets, photographs, a visit to a zoo or botanical garden, a farm, etc.
  • is able to take part in children's cultural programmes, entertainment events, festivals, sporting events
  • comments on his/her experiences, tells what he/she has seen, heard, can say what was interesting, what interested him/her, what was right, what was wrong
  • is interested in books, knows many fairy tales and stories, has favourite heroes
  • knows a range of songs, poems and nursery rhymes
  • sings simple songs, recognises and follows the rhythm (e.g. tapping, drumming)
  • creates, models, draws, paints, cuts, glues, pulls out, assembles, makes
  • plays creative and themed games (e.g. school, family, travel, doctor), can perform short theatre roles

10. The child should orient himself in his environment, in the surrounding world and in practical life. A child meets this requirement if:

  • he/she knows his/her environment (at home, at school), he/she is reliably oriented in the immediate surroundings (he/she knows where he/she lives, where he/she goes to kindergarten, where the shops and playgrounds are, where to go when in need, etc.)
  • is able to handle common practical activities and situations that he/she encounters regularly (e.g. knows how to send a small note, shop and pay in a shop, ask for what he/she needs, ask for what he/she does not understand, can make a phone call, is tidy and clean, is self-service, can do small cleaning jobs, can take care of plants or small pets)
  • knows how to behave (e.g. at home, in kindergarten, in public, at the doctor's, in the theatre, in the shop, on the pavement, in the street, when meeting strangers and unfamiliar people) and tries to follow it
  • has knowledge of the natural and inanimate world, people, culture, technology within the range of his/her practical experience (e.g. He/she knows his/her body structure, can name its parts and some organs, distinguishes between genders, knows who the family members are and what they do, distinguishes between different professions, tools, instruments, knows what money is for, knows the names of some plants, trees, animals and other living creatures, knows his/her way around means of transport, knows some technical devices), understands common circumstances, events, phenomena, situations with which he/she is directly confronted (e.g. weather and its changes, changes of seasons, substances and their properties, travel, environment and its protection, waste management)
  • engage appropriately in the care of those in need
  • has knowledge of the wider environment, e.g. of our country (cities, mountains, rivers, language, culture), of the existence of other countries and peoples, has random and fragmentary knowledge of the diversity of the world in its order (continents, planet Earth, the universe)
  • behaves appropriately and safely at school, at home and in public (in the street, in the playground, in the shop, at the doctor's), is aware of possible dangers (anticipates a dangerous situation, is cautious, does not take risks), knows and usually observes basic rules of behaviour in the street (pays attention when crossing, understands traffic lights)
  • knows the factors that harm health (smoking)
  • is aware of risky and inappropriate behaviour, e.g. bullying, violence

Barbora Machálková
school headmistress





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